Oncidium is the most beautiful and popular representative of the Orchid family. There are several types of this epiphyte, which differ from each other not only in the shade of the buds but also in the color of the leaves.
Knowing how to choose a plant and how to care for it, you can grow an incredibly beautiful flower that will decorate the room for many years. What oncidium looks like can be seen in the photo.
Oncidium Orchid description
One of the varieties of orchids is oncidium (Oncidium). The flower is divided into a variety of species, differing among themselves in the shade of buds and leaves. If we talk about the natural habitat of oncidium, then this is almost the whole world. Some plants represent the tropics of South and Central America, others grow on the tops of mountains, rejoicing in the coolness, and still others represent savannahs and semi-deserts.
Each type of oncidium has its own external features, by which the plant can be distinguished from one another. Some species outwardly resemble irises in the type of flower, leaves, and stem. A distinctive feature of other varieties are roots hanging from the pot.
The leaves and peduncles of various plant species also differ from each other. As for the flowers, they all grow in the same color range: from brown to yellow and orange. The structure of the buds and their shape is very similar, and the size is almost the same.
Only when blooming, they begin to exude a delicate and pleasant aroma. Flowering occurs several times a year. The duration of this period is individual because the living conditions of the plant will affect it. If you cut a flower and put it in a vase, it can please the eye for about three weeks.
Oncidium Orchid Varieties and species
More than 600 species of oncidium are considered known, and cultivation is carried out with several of them. In an apartment, you can safely grow hybrid varieties, because they are unpretentious. Check out the complete guide on Oncidium Orchid Varieties.
Important! The most popular is yellow oncidium. He received his fame thanks to the buds of a lemon shade.
Check out a guide on Yellow Oncidium Orchid Care.
Oncidium Orchid Transplant after purchase and during further growing season
Plant transplantation is carried out only if necessary. This may be, for example, the case when the entire container is filled with roots and the plant can no longer fully develop.
It is best to plant a flower in a wide pot, which is filled with special soil for orchids. The composition can also be made by hand: combine pieces of bark, sand from the riverbank, peat, sphagnum moss and charcoal.
Basic Oncidium Orchid transplant rules:
- First of all, we take out a flower from the previous pot.
- We thoroughly clean the roots of bad soil and put the plant in water for 15 minutes . The liquid should be of medium temperature. Rotten roots are removed by cutting to living tissue. Where cuts appear, apply a fungicide solution.
- To prevent diseases, in the future, the soil for the flower should be calcined in the oven or held in boiling water.
- We lay out a layer of drainage in a new pot, put the substrate on it.
- Next, place the flower in a pot so that there is enough space for the pseudobulbs. The oldest should be near the edge of the container.
- The resulting voids are filled with soil so that the roots are completely under it. Bulbs are above the surface.
- At the end of planting, you need to check that the plant sits tightly in the pot and does not fall out of it. For greater stability, you can use a rope and a stick .
In addition to the traditional method of breeding orchids, they can be grown using tree bark by attaching a plant to it with sphagnum moss.
Oncidium Orchid Growing conditions
Care at home provides for compliance with the temperature regime. Depending on the type, the indicators may vary.
Temperature for oncidium:
- Heat-loving species, whose natural habitat is tropical forests, live well at a maximum temperature of 30 degrees . The minimum readings should be within 15 degrees.
- Oncidiums from temperate latitudes. They live in mountains and foothills. In summer, a good temperature regime for them will be 20-22 degrees, and in the autumn-winter period, plants will survive at 13-15 degrees.
- Cold-loving species. In nature, they grow in the wooded areas of the mountains. In summer, they grow well at 21-22 degrees, and in the cold season, the temperature should not fall below 7-8 degrees.
Important! In the room where oncidiums grow, temperature fluctuations should not exceed 5 degrees.
At the moment, there are practically no pure types of oncidium on sale. Most often, you get hybrids, since such plants are most adapted to growing at home.
They can grow beautifully all year round if the room temperature ranges from 15 to 27 degrees. However, do not forget that unsuitable conditions can destroy the flower.
Air humidity for Oncidium Orchid
As for humidity, this indicator plays a small role in the growth of orchids. Oncidium develops well if the air humidity is 70%, and just as well tolerates indicators of 35%. If in summer it is very hot even indoors and there is no air conditioner, or it does not save, you can sprinkle the leaves with water to cool the plant.
The same activities are carried out in winter, when, due to the use of heating, the air in the room becomes too dry . If the air humidity is less than 35%, then the leaves may dry out. The situation will be saved by an electronic humidifier. And you can also use a stand with wet sand or expanded clay.
Spraying with heated water has a positive effect on the flower, however, if the temperature drops below 18 degrees, then measure to moisten the plant must be completed. Oncidium needs systematic airing of the room, otherwise, fungal infection of plants may become more active.
Lighting for Oncidium Orchid
The described species of orchids need enhanced lighting . The plant should be provided with constant bright light, however, it should not be allowed to enter direct sunlight.
Important! The lack of light directly affects the condition of the leaves of the plant. If the plates become darker and denser, then this is a sign that you need. And, conversely, if the leaves lighten and acquire red specks, this means that the rays have burned them.
When the sun is enough for the flower, its plates are beautiful in appearance and are distinguished by a bright green tint. It is quite realistic that leaves can look good even in minimal light . But, in this case, the flower sacrifices flowering, so do not expect buds. For proper development, in winter, it is recommended to install a fluorescent lamp near the flowerpot.
Soil for Oncidium Orchid
As a primer for the growth of oncidium, a ready-made mixture, which can be found in a garden store, is perfect. Also, you can prepare the soil yourself, the main thing is to know what is included in its composition for the perfect flowering of the orchid.
To do this, you need to combine peat, pine bark, charcoal, sphagnum moss. When planting a plant in a pot, it is necessary so that the stem is near the edge, and the rest of the place is occupied by new shoots. For planting, it is best to choose a wide container.
Oncidium Orchid care
Watering Oncidium Orchid
Moisturizing the flower soil also has a number of features. Watering is directly affected by the stage of growth and development of the plant. As soon as the pseudobulb appears, the orchids should be given good systematic watering. The same activities continue until such time as the sprout appears.
There must be holes in the bottom of the pot designed to let excess liquid out. Otherwise, the water will stagnate, then the roots are likely to rot. It is better to water the orchid with a settled liquid of medium temperature.
The soil should never be too dry, otherwise, it will badly affect the root system. Watering stops with the appearance of a fresh pseudobulb. It is these conditions that contribute to the growth of a young peduncle.
When it begins to grow, watering should again be included in the daily care of the plant. If too many pseudobulbs appear on the flower, it will not be able to fully grow, because there will be no strength for this.
Plant nutrition is provided for the growth of new shoots. Fertilizers are added to water and soil until new pseudobulbs appear. The resumption of feeding occurs with the appearance of the peduncle.
It is necessary to stop fertilizing after the orchid blooms. One has only to add a little fertilizer to the soil, as it will immediately appear on the plant.
It is best to purchase specialized mixtures designed for orchids. It is worth diluting fertilizer in a smaller proportion than indicated by the manufacturer. Both leaves and roots should be fed.
There is no need to trim the oncidium. If the peduncle begins to fade and turn yellow, then it should be removed, leaving a small stump in its place. Leave the green peduncle in the pot, because new flowers may appear on it.
The plant is very sensitive when carrying out such manipulations with it. As a result, it is better not to do a transplant. It is necessary to resort to this procedure only when the soil has become unsuitable or too many roots have appeared. In this case, it is simply necessary to change the substrate.
Advice! When transplanting, lay a drainage layer on the bottom of a new pot.
oncidium orchid Diseases and pests
Oncidium, like an orchid, is often subject to pest invasion. It can be a scale insect, a mealybug, or a fairly common tick. If you notice a foreign body on a flower, you should remove it with cotton wool soaked in soapy water or alcohol.
Next, you need to treat the flower with a special preparation against pests. This is an actellit or actara. Instead of industrial means, you can use folk remedies – prepare garlic or onion infusion. To do this, a spoonful of chopped vegetables is added to a glass of water and mixed well. You need to insist the mixture for a day, and then apply.
Important! Often housewives do not know why the oncidium dries the peduncle. An incorrect arrangement of leaves that slow down its growth can lead to such a problem.
In addition to pests, a flower can be affected by fungal or bacterial rot. Due to waterlogging, the roots begin to rot. The same thing happens when placing the oncidium in a draft or in the wind.
If you notice brown spots on the leaves of a flower, this means that the plant has been affected by bacterial rot. You should immediately remove the affected plates, and rearrange the flower in a warm, ventilated room. You can also treat the plant with a fungicide.
oncidium orchid in winter
Oncidium hybrids do not form pseudobulbs, they fall into a dormant state for a while. Young shoots ripen completely by autumn. As soon as the calendar winter comes, the plant hibernates . At this time, you need to water the flower every 20 days, do not feed and create cool conditions.
oncidium orchid rooting
In order for the plant to have roots, greenhouse conditions should be provided to it. If everything is done correctly, then you will achieve the desired effect in a short time.
As a greenhouse at home, you can use:
- cut plastic bottle or bottle.
The greenhouse allows you to create such conditions for the oncidium in which it is used to grow in nature. And you should also provide the flower with diffused lighting, high air temperature, suitable humidity conditions. The greenhouse is placed under the sun or a lamp, excluding direct light from falling on it.
Oncidium Orchid reproduction and propagation
A flower growing at home reproduces perfectly by bulbs or dividing a bush. Both methods are simple and fairly easy.
Growing Oncidium Orchid by dividing bush
It is advisable to carry out the event if more than seven pseudobulbs have appeared because a flower on which there are three pseudobulbs can already grow and develop. The division is made by cutting the bush with a disinfected tool.
After that, the sections are treated with crushed coal. Each cut piece of the plant must be planted in dry soil. Within 10 days, the shoots do not need to be watered so that the cut points do not begin to rot. Transplantation should be carried out in early spring.
By dividing the roots
Orchids with pseudobulbs share themselves. From one bush, two are obtained, moreover, the new one is already forming pseudobulbs, and is separated from the main one by dividing the root.
Caring for this wonderful plant is not very difficult. To grow a beautiful flower, you just need to follow simple rules. This also applies to the cultivation of oncidium.