Orchids are beautiful inhabitants of the tropics who have conquered many hearts. When grown in urban apartments, they often become capricious. It is difficult for these delicate flowers to adapt to a new environment, so caring for them requires a lot of effort. But even if all conditions are met, representatives of the flora often have such a fungal disease as Fusarium orchids. A rapidly developing disease is an infection of flowers by Fusarium fungi. The disease is very dangerous for plants, but when detected in the early stages, it is easy to adopt successful orchid fusarium treatment.
What is Fusarium in orchids?
With Fusarium, the culture becomes a victim of the attack of fungi that reproduce through spores or conidia. Fusariums penetrate the flower in different ways. They can get into it through microcracks, rhizomes, and near-stem zone. But infection with spores of seedlings and seeds is possible.
Fusarium varies by type – there is a stem and root rot. As can be understood from this division, with a disease, foci can appear in an orchid on the stem and leaves, or in the root system.
Infection begins both from the upper part of the flower and from the lower leaves, from their outer or outer side. It all depends on the way fungal spores enter the plant – through the soil, other affected flowers, the air, etc. The disease poses the greatest threat to several types of orchids – phalaenopsis, Brassia, Miltonia, epidendrum, and others.
Today, Fusarium is well studied by scientists, so a wide range of drugs are used to combat pathogens. These are both potent and chemical substances, as well as more delicate bio-based formulations. But there are folk remedies that have proven their effectiveness.
Interesting! Such a disease as plant fusarium became known during the Second World War. At that time, the disease caused serious damage to agriculture. Scientists have found that in crops that have survived the disease, the fruits become inedible.
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How do I know if my orchid has Fusarium? Signs of fusarium
Fusarium can be easily seen with the naked eye. Especially when it comes to the stem form of the disease and the later stages. The first signs of infection with an ailment are small balls or specks of white-pink color that appear on the stems or in the root zone. The disease spreads rapidly and the affected areas eventually appear everywhere.
Symptoms and signs of orchid Fusarium :
- Reddening of the root, and with the development of fusarium – the resulting dents. Over time, these places darken and die.
- Stem thinning, loss of elasticity and color change – it becomes dark brown.
- Twisting of leaves in orchids and a decrease in turgor, general lethargy, leaf shedding.
- The formation of irregularly shaped yellowish spots on the stems and leaves, which then darken and turn into depressions that quickly spread over the area.
It is much more likely to stop the progression of the disease if the treatment of the flower is promptly started. Timely measures taken will help if the fungi have affected only the ground part of a beautiful plant. But if they hit the root system, it will be several times more difficult to cure the flower. That is why it is important to respond to the first symptoms of rot in order to have time to save the orchid.
Orchid Fusarium Treatment Methods
Orchid Fusarium Treatment can be done not only with special means but also with folk methods. However, when choosing such methods of controlling the disease, it is necessary to evaluate all the risks to the culture. You need to act as quickly as possible Fusarium is spreading rapidly.
Gardeners sometimes combine the fight against the fungus with folk remedies and the treatment of flowers with chemicals. “Grandma’s” methods can be effective in the early stages. But if such therapy did not help the plant, then it is better to proceed with the treatment with chemicals. Experts recommend the use of fungicides.
Regardless of how the orchid will be treated, the algorithm of actions at the initial stages will be similar:
- A sick flower must be isolated from other crops.
- The orchid affected by the fungus should be removed from the soil and washed with slightly warm water, both roots and stems, but do not soak them for a long time.
- The areas damaged by rot must be removed with a knife and sprinkled with crushed activated carbon or treated with Fukortsin.
- Dry the flower and perform further processing with folk remedies or special preparations.
Gloves must be worn when handling a diseased plant, as fungi can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or dermatitis in humans.
Important! Fusarium pathogens thrive in both soil and water. Their spores are carried by wind and raindrops. Even in a cured plant, fungi can reactivate, which is why attention must be paid to the prevention of rot.
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Special chemical for Orchid Fusarium Treatment
In the fight against Fusarium disease in orchids, several means have proven themselves well at once. In the early stages of rot and with slight damage to the flower after treatment, you can do with watering the plant with a fungicidal solution. Orchid Fusarium Treatment should last at least a month, during which the orchid should be kept in quarantine. But if during the first week the tactics did not lead to improvements, it is necessary to start processing not only the soil but all parts of the representative flora.
For a complete treatment of the plant, you can use “Topsin”, “Benomyl”, “Fundazim” and “Fundazol”. It is the latter drug that is considered the most effective. 1 g of the powder must be diluted in 1 liter of warm water and the diseased areas of the orchid should be treated with this liquid daily – an average of 3 times a day. The flower should be treated with “Fundazol” for 2 weeks, and then quarantined for the same period.
If an orchid stem is affected, the procedure will be slightly different. It is necessary to cut the base of the flower so that the cut remains clean. All rotten areas should be removed. It is necessary to leave the cut to dry for 10–15 minutes, and then treat it with the Maxim preparation or the Fukortsin solution.
When treating a tropical plant with chemicals, it is important to follow the dosage and all manufacturer’s recommendations. Treatment with drugs should be performed after all cut areas are slightly dry. This may take 2 hours.
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Homemade and fold remedies for Orchid Fusarium Treatment
Orchid Fusarium Treatment with folk methods can be started immediately after the treated diseased flower dries. The most popular therapy for orchids is infusions with laundry soap. It’s easy to prepare:
- It is necessary to grind 200 g of laundry soap into shavings.
- Grated soap should be poured with 2 liters of warm water.
- You need to add a couple of drops of iodine to the soap solution and treat the plant with the remedy.
Soap infusion must be applied repeatedly to achieve the effect. It is best to repeat the procedure every 3-5 days. However, if after the first treatment no visible improvements are found, it is worth postponing the treatment of the orchid with folk remedies and picking up chemicals.
You can try to water the flowers that have fallen ill with a fungal disease with an infusion of ash and soap. 2-3 pinches of wood ash should be mixed with a tablespoon of soap chips. The ingredients should be dissolved in 2 liters of water and left to infuse for a day. It is necessary to spray the plant with liquid twice a day for 5-6 days.
Mullein grass has proven itself well in the fight against fungi. 50 g of dry matter should be diluted in 2 liters of water at room temperature and left to infuse for 3 days. After that, the solution should be filtered and watering should be organized until the plant recovers.
How do you rehabilitate an orchid?
An orchid cured of Fusarium must be kept in quarantine for an average of 3-4 weeks. At this time, an exotic flower cannot be transplanted, watered abundantly, or created in greenhouse conditions for it. It is better to protect it from abundant watering, and also from getting moisture on the leaves. Pour the liquid should be carefully, only in the root zone.
When transplanting a plant that has undergone fungal rot, it is necessary to carefully treat both the soil and the pot itself. The composition of the earth should be controlled. It should contain no more than 10-15% peat. And the container should be washed with boiling water or other disinfection measures should be taken. For example, temporarily apply an antiseptic to the walls and bottom or soak the pot in a solution of copper sulphate.
During rehabilitation, the tropical beauty should be closely monitored. As already mentioned, fusarium is an insidious disease that can retreat for a while, and then attack the flower again. If signs of re-infection appear, it is necessary to repeat the therapy.
The plant will recover from rot faster if it has good lighting and an air temperature of about 20 degrees. It is not recommended to spray the flower until it has fully recovered, and also to use top dressing and growth stimulants.
If the orchid loses most of the roots due to rot, all efforts during the rehabilitation period should be directed to growing them. To do this, the plant is placed in a bath with a foam pad and wet moss. In this case, you can use stimulants for the growth of the root system.
Important! Fusarium develops for a long time – from six months to one and a half years. If fungi are suspected, the root system should be examined first. This is where the disease originates.
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How to prevent orchids from Fusarium?
Most often, a fungal disease affects weakened plants. Therefore, proper care can protect flowers from rot. The following mistakes must be avoided:
- Low soil temperature – when the pot is on the windowsill or in a cool, shady place, in a draft.
- Stagnation of moisture in a pot – when the plant is often and abundantly watered, pallets are not used or the liquid does not evaporate well from the soil due to insufficient lighting and oxygen.
- The abundance of peat and foam in the soil – when the substances contained in the soil make it too acidic and reduce the number of beneficial bacteria, which means they create favorable conditions for the reproduction of fungi.
- Salt substrate – when salts from tap water or fertilizers penetrate the soil.
Fusarium is rapidly spreading among plants. Therefore, orchids infected with it must be isolated from other representatives of the flora after and before orchid fusarium treatment. When rehabilitating an orchid after fungal rot, it is undesirable to reuse the same pot for planting. And even more so, you can’t use the old soil, because the causative agents of Fusarium are extremely tenacious.
To prevent fusarium fungal rot, watering should not be abused and moisture should not be allowed to stagnate in the soil. The earth in a pot must be regularly loosened, and also ventilate the room so that the water evaporates well. The plant must be provided with fertilizers and top dressings, observe the recommended temperature regime and not deprive the beautiful orchid of sunlight. And when transplanting flowers, do not forget about the disinfecting tillage. If you found symptoms and signs