If earlier only experienced flower growers were engaged in the cultivation of orchids, then over the past few years the number of fans of these flowers has increased dramatically. The high demand for orchids is due to the wide variety and the beauty of the buds. However, breeding such a plant is not easy: Growing Phalaenopsis Orchids under Lights and moisture are extremely important.
Why do orchids need lighting for growing?
To understand why you need to organize additional lighting for orchids, first you need to remember the basics of biology. Every plant needs an influx of sunlight, since nutrients in the leaves are synthesized only under the influence of UV rays. In the summer (when the daylight hours are longer), ultraviolet radiation is enough for indoor plants. In winter, dawn begins late, while sunset, on the contrary, occurs earlier. Such changes can negatively affect most indoor plants. Only shade-loving flowers feel good.
Do not forget about some of the requirements for the maintenance of orchids. The homeland of this flower is the mountainous and forest areas of Africa, America, Southeast Asia and Australia. In the habitual habitats of orchids, a hot climate prevails with frequent heavy rains and plenty of sunshine. This is where these plants thrive, produce a lot of greenery and often bloom.
In order for these flowers to grow well at home and delight the eye with bright buds, it is important for the florist to create conditions close to natural. This means that when there is a lack of sun, orchid lighting may be required.
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What is the best lighting for orchids? Organising
In the area where such flowers grow in the wild, daylight hours reach 10-13 hours. This indicator is optimal for growth and flowering, so you should focus on it when organising lighting at home. At the same time, several other factors should not be overlooked:
- Direction of the window in the room. If the room faces south, then in most cases the sun will be enough for the flowers. Windows facing east, west or north do not provide the amount of light required for flowers.
- Illumination level. In shaded rooms with poor lighting, orchids will always need to turn on the lights (at least briefly).
- Seasonality. In rooms facing south, artificial lighting can be turned on only in the winter season, on the east and west windows of the house, moderate additional light is required at twilight. The north side requires constant lamp use.
- Orchid variety. Not all varieties of these colors have the same requirements for the amount of ultraviolet radiation. If the leaves of the plant are long and narrow, this indicates light-requiring. Green spaces with dense, wide leaves are shade-loving. Connect a lamp for them only if the plant looks sluggish and sick.
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Light Spectrum: Suitable types of indoor flowers
A universal option is a full spectrum lighting fixture. These lamps are suitable for all types of indoor flowers, but there is also specialized equipment. Lamps, specially designed for the organization of phyto-illumination of orchids, emit light not white, but red and blue. This is explained by the processes occurring in the leaves of the plant.
So, during photosynthesis, green pigments begin to work actively. They are represented by chlorophylls of two types (A and B). Type A catches only the long wavelengths of the red spectrum and is responsible for the appearance of buds on the plant. Chlorophylls of type B are able to perceive only short waves (this is the blue spectrum), while they are responsible for the active appearance of foliage and young shoots.
To make up for the shortage of both short and long waves, you should choose either two lamps (separately with red and blue light), or a universal device with lamps of two colors. In the dark, it is necessary to turn on the red lamps, and at other times – blue.
What is best indoor lighting for orchids?
Lighting manufacturers offer a wide range of different lamps that are suitable for supplementary lighting in green spaces. When choosing, one should take into account the principle of operation of the device, cost and other performance characteristics. Among the most demanded:
- Metal halide lamps. In the assortment of such products, you need to look for those that are intended for growing plants in an apartment. The advantages lie in high-quality radiation and a wide range of shapes and sizes.
- Fluorescent lamp. It is a compact product that uses gases to generate UV rays. The surface of the lamp is covered with a phosphor. For plants, you need to choose shades under numbers 33 and 840. Marking can be of several types: LB, LD or LDC.
- Energy saving lamps. These types of lamps are widely used for home lighting. Among the advantages they call a relatively low price, short circuit protection and a long service life. The distance from the lighting fixture to the leaves should be at least 5 cm.
- Mercury discharge lamps. According to some characteristics, these products are similar to luminescent ones. The glow temperature of such devices should vary between 3200–4200 ° K.
- LED lamps. Such options are often called universal. In the assortment, you can choose a phytolamp for orchids that works in one color spectrum. In addition, combined devices are presented that allow you to change the ratio of red and blue radiation.
Lighting Lamp arrangements for orchid growth indoor
There are several ways to attach lighting devices:
- Orchid table lamp. This option should be used in cases where the orchid pot is on a windowsill, on a shelf or table. To speed up the process of photosynthesis, a separate small lamp should be installed above each plant. In this case, you need to ensure that the main stream of light is directed not at the buds, but at the leaves.
- Pendant lights. If one light source will be used for several pots, then it is better to fix it a little higher. An example is a structure in which the lamp is mounted on a horizontal bar or on a vertical post.
- Fastening to furniture. You can choose this method in cases where the pots with orchids (and other plants) are installed on the shelves of the whatnot. Then the upper shelf will be a good platform for attaching lamps that illuminate the lower tier.
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Backlighting errors and their consequences
The installation of the lamp does not guarantee the beginning of flower growth. For some amateur flower growers, after such innovations, orchids, on the contrary, die. This can only be explained by gross errors:
- Excess light. This problem can be suspected by weak growth, lack of buds and red spots on the leaves. The shade of the leaves most often changes in winter.
- Lack of light. If the lamp is rarely turned on, orchid leaves may take on a dark green or bluish tint. The leaf plate becomes softer to the touch. Flowers on such a plant will not appear, and if you do not correct the lighting, the flower will soon die.
- Wrong choice of color spectrum. If you set only the blue backlight, then the plant will actively increase the number of new leaves, but it will not bloom. If the backlight is only red, then a scattering of large buds will appear on the orchid. However, due to fragility, the peduncle can break.
- Close proximity of the lamp. The minimum distance that should separate the lamp from the leaves is 3-5 cm. If the lamp is closer, the orchid will get burns – white spots appear on the leaves.
Proper care of this flower is not limited to additional lighting. In order for the orchid to bloom often and grow green mass, it is important to maintain high humidity in the room and prevent the temperature from dropping below 10 ° C.