All Spots on orchid leaves: Symptoms, Causes, and treatment

Leaves are an indicator of the health of a plant organism. Tissue destruction, puffiness, atrophy, spots on orchid leaves occur as in all types of orchids. This is a sign of illness or improper care of a potted flower.

Spots on Orchid Leaves

The external manifestations of lesions depend on the conditions of the flower, the structure of the leaf plates (thick, thin, fleshy, tough, with and without veins). The spots are flat, convex. They are very diverse in color, size, shape.

There are many types of spots some are:

  • White Spots
  • Black Spots
  • Brown Spots
  • Yellow Spots
  • Transparent and light Spots
  • Dark
  • Wet

white spots on orchid leaves

White Spots On Orchid Leaves

Plants living at low air temperatures have a few specks – they react to a cold window sill, a draft from a window. White spots on thin-leaved varieties with subsequent purple or red coloration are a sign of phyllostictosis and other infectious fungal infections. A whitish bloom on plates, buds is a symptom of another disease – powdery mildew.

If your Orchid Leaves Cracking read the guide for solution.

black spots on orchid leaves

Black Spots On Orchid Leaves

They arise due to maintenance errors, the development of various bacterial rot, fungi, pests.

Description:

  • a scattering of small dots with the further formation of large depressed spots with a white or yellow ring inside – a fungal infection characteristic of phalaenopsis, vanda;
  • black dry with a white rim – found in all types of orchids against the background of a fungus;
  • depressed, localized at the junction of the leaves with the stem. At first, it seems as if they are bubbling, then the defeat crumbles. A dry net formation remains, the plate falls off. A sign of fusarium wilting in all varieties;
  • convex, variably annular, sometimes slimy to the touch (fungus);
  • small, numerous, dry, depressed. From dots to large oval, round, diamond-shaped formations. A sign of neglected black spot, phyllosticosis;
  • at the beginning of the disease, the formations are yellow, over time the middle is pressed in, turns black. The effect of a yellow rim is created around it. Sign of a viral infection, Alternaria, stangosporosis.

Important! Black, dark brown plaques with a yellow rim are caused by a heat burn when the sheet is exposed to the hot air of heating devices. In some varieties of phalaenopsis, damage appears from the sun. Stains cannot be treated.

bacterial brown spot on orchids

Bacterial Brown Spot On Orchids

Orchids leaf turning brown is Sign of bacterial lesions, fungus.

Description:

  • brown wet areas – go from the base of the plate, along the lobar vein, with a clear distinction between healthy and diseased tissues. Over time, they fill the entire surface;
  • large, rounded – a sign of bacterial and fungal spotting. Most often it affects Cattleya, Phalaenopsis, less often – Vanda;
  • red-brown with a yellow border – rust, fusarium spotting has settled on the plant;
  • light brown wet, gradually darkening – septoria. The plaques are slightly depressed, surrounded by a yellow halo;
  • with a yellow rim and a dried core (up to holes) – a sign of a fungal infection.

yellow spots on orchid leaves

Yellow Spots On Orchid Leaves

The most common type. Formed against the background of a deficiency of potassium, iron, overheating, poor lighting, due to damage to the roots, stress. There are pests and fungal infections.

Description:

  • ring-shaped flat formations on a yellow background – a fungus that lives on stangopeans, bifrenaria;
  • ring-shaped, merge into circles, pressed in, darken – an infection characteristic of Cattleya;
  • oval, ring-shaped, diamond-shaped – fungus on dendrobiums;
  • dry, of various shapes, sizes, quickly darken, are pressed in – the disease affects zygopetalum, pescatori;
  • yellow spots, the leaf is half green, gradually turns yellow, falls off – a sign of fusarium wilting;
  • slight spotting until the plates completely dry out, the presence of tied threads of yellow, red, black color is possible – the plant received a chemical burn;
  • light yellow spots, slightly pressed in, over time overgrowing with yellow-brown rot – bacterial damage;
  • small plaques – scaly infection;
  • large, spreading to the entire plate – a natural aging process. Typical for adult, lower leaves of phalaenopsis.

If you are facing problem with Miltoniopsis and its leaves turning yellow here is the answer Why do Miltonia Orchid leaves turning yellow?.

Transparent Spots on orchids leaves

Transparent Spots On Orchids Leaves

Caused by burns and disease.

Description:

  • light ring-shaped, double oval, diamond-shaped, tissues are not pressed in – virus;
  • rings, stripes formed by small rectangular plaques. During the year they turn black – a virus;
  • first yellow, then pressed in, turn white on old leaves, without affecting young growth – a virus;
  • depressed, dry, light, with a dark border – a sign of phomopsis. At first, the spot is light, after 2 weeks the plate becomes thinner, like papyrus. The edges turn black, the leaf dies to the end. Another reason is black spotting;
  • wet white, with light dots inside, sometimes with a dark halo – sunburn;
  • dry, light, at first the lesion is filled with moisture, after 20 hours it is pressed in, turns white – excessive contact with water (found on wands);
  • transparent, white roughness – burn;
  • the plates lightened, overgrown with red dots – flat, spider mites;
  • transparent sticky discharge – mealybug, aphids, bugs.

Dard spots on orchid leaves

Dard Spots On Orchid Leaves 1

Dark plaques of various shapes, sizes, localization indicate the presence of a viral, fungal, bacterial infection. The second reason is sun / heat burn, a consequence of excessive lighting (here is guide for you on Growing Phalaenopsis Orchids under Lights). The wide spread of spotting in the core indicates a long-term presence of the orchid in the water. The condition is aggravated by low lighting, low temperatures, high humidity in the apartment.

wet spots on orchid leaves

Wet Spots On Orchid Leaves

Formations are often overgrown with bloom, characterized by a rapid color change.

Description:

  • wet vitreous – rot, bacteriosis;
  • quickly passing from leaf to leaf, turning yellow on days 2-4 – late blight;
  • gradually darken, pressed in, acquire a yellow color along the rim – septoria;
  • transparent, watery with a gray, easily washable bloom – gray rot;
  • yellowish brown, with irregular distribution, intricate ring-shaped pattern. Over time, they merge, shrink, darken to an intense brown color – bacterial rot (Cattleya, oncidium, epidendrum are susceptible);
  • transparent or with a yellowish brown tint. Over time, they acquire a mushy structure, secrete a yellowish secret – a bacterial infection (this is how phalaenopsis is sick).

What causes spots on orchid leaves?

What Causes Spots On Orchid Leaves

Spotting develops due to unfavorable environmental conditions (incorrect watering, lighting, temperature conditions), damage by fungi, bacteria, viruses, pests.

Excessive hydration

Prolonged contact with water is harmful to any orchid, but especially often it ruins the vanda. If you forget the soaked plant for a long time, water it too intensively, the tissues will deteriorate. The strength of the lesion depends on the individual structure of the leaves. Adjust the irrigation mode, carefully soak the pot in the basin. Some varieties tolerate 20 minutes of contact with liquid, while others take 40 minutes. (Read also Choosing Best Orchid Pots for Phalaenopsis growing and reporting).

Feature! Monitor the quality of the irrigation water. High rigidity, concentration of harmful impurities create a toxic mass. It damages the root, goes into the stem, destroying everything in its path.

Drying out of the plant

Rare watering is the other side of the coin, often found among beginners. In hot climates, moisture deficiency leads to tissue dehydration. Having received water, the orchid directs it to the most heated problem areas. The liquid accumulates and breaks the plate along the lobar vein. The solution is to adjust the irrigation regime.

Infection with fungal diseases

It spreads by air or through irrigation water. Pathogens enter the plant through the stem, leaves, root system, peduncles. The defeat can go top-down or bottom-up.

Types of fungal infections:

  1. Phylostictosis (brown spot).
  2. Fungi caused by the pathogens Naevala perexiqua, Curvularia eragrostidis.
  3. Cercosporosis.
  4. Fusarium wilting.
  5. Septoria.
  6. Alternaria (ring spot).
  7. Stangosporosis.

The source of diseased plants is imports from Asia (cattleyas, dendrobiums). The effectiveness of treatment depends on the degree of damage. The sooner the pathogen is found, the faster the orchid will be healthy.

Important! In addition to the fungus, bacteria and viruses attack the culture. Infections cause various spots, wet / dry rot, bacteriosis.

Mealybug

It sucks out the juice, injecting toxic toxins instead. The flower weakens, slows down growth, loses leaves. The first sign is sticky drops and a cottony white coating on both sides of the plates. Reason for appearance: violation of containment conditions. The main delicacy of the pest is overfed with nitrogen, weakened orchid with impaired metabolism.

Usually the insect attacks the flower in winter. It dies from high temperatures, therefore, watering with a hot shower at t 40-52 ° C is shown. Preparations based on the Nim tree, Fitoverm work well.

how to treat any spots on orchid leaves?

If the cause of the leaf spotting is improper care, adjusting the conditions of maintenance will quickly bring the plant back to a healthy appearance. When time is lost, bacteria, fungi, viruses destroy the flower, then it’s time to take serious action.

Resuscitation of phalaenopsis

Action plan:

  1. The orchid has lost its leaves with a growing point, retaining only a stump with a root collar and rhizome – plant in a fresh substrate in a mini-greenhouse. No spraying, with moderate watering.
  2. Leaves are completely or partially lost, 2-3 roots remain, a stem with a growing point – plant in fresh soil, use spraying instead of watering.
  3. The peduncle is preserved without a growth point, horses, leaves – divide into segments 2-3 cm with a dormant bud. Place on wet sphagnum surface.

Methods For Propagating Orchids From Aerial Roots and regular roots for proper growth.

Phalaenopsis flower treatment with drugs

Action plan:

  1. Isolate the orchid, rinse in warm water.
  2. Wipe the leaves dry with a tissue or cotton wool, especially around the stains, to remove plaque from the spores.
  3. Remove affected areas to healthy green tissue.
  4. Disinfect the cut with charcoal or brilliant green.
  5. Use a specific fungicide (Benomil).

orchid leaves care and Preventive measures

To prevent an epidemic, the affected plant is isolated from others. The window on which it stood washes well. The old soil is thrown away. The pots are washed and disinfected with a chlorine-based cleaning agent. Important! Always inspect the plant before purchasing and look for infected areas. Infected imported flowers often end up in stores.

Preventive measures:

  1. Temperature control inside the substrate. The plant should not be cooled to low temperatures or overheated.
  2. Correct watering. Excessive moisture is an excellent medium for the development of pathogens.
  3. Soil composition control. Eliminate too much foam or peat. The substrate changes the acidity, expels beneficial microorganisms. The share of synthetics, peat is 10-20% of the total volume of components.
  4. Correct feeding. Excess nitrogen and iron leads to soil salinity, weakening the flower’s immunity.

Compliance with these simple conditions will allow you to grow a beautiful, spectacular plant at home. It is only important to pay attention to the intricacies of crop care and take the necessary measures in time.

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